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地震安全性评价
作者:国家指定房屋检测机构 来源: 发布时间:2017-12-18 15:16:30

地震安全性(xing)评价


    一、地震安全(quan)性(xing)评价的概念

    地震安全性评价是指在对具体建设工程场址及其周围地区的地震地质条件、地球物理场环境、地震活动规律、现代地形变及应力场等方面深入研究的基础上,采用先进的地震危险性概率分析方法,按照工程所需要采用的风险水平,科学地给出相应的工程规划或设计所需要的一定概率水准下的地震动参数(加速度、设计反应谱,地震动时程等)和相应的资料。

    二、地震安全性评价简(jian)介

    地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)安全性(xing)(xing)评(ping)价(jia)是根据对建设工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)场(chang)址和(he)场(chang)址周(zhou)围(wei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)与地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质(zhi)环(huan)(huan)境的(de)(de)(de)(de)调查,场(chang)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质(zhi)条件(jian)勘测,通过地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质(zhi)、地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)球(qiu)物理、地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)等多学科资(zi)料的(de)(de)(de)(de)综合(he)评(ping)价(jia)和(he)分(fen)析计算,按照工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)类型、性(xing)(xing)质(zhi)、重要(yao)性(xing)(xing),科学合(he)理地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)给出与工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)抗震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)设防要(yao)求相(xiang)应的(de)(de)(de)(de)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)动(dong)参(can)数,以及场(chang)址的(de)(de)(de)(de)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质(zhi)灾害(hai)预测结(jie)果。地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)安全性(xing)(xing)评(ping)价(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)作的(de)(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)内容包括:工(gong)(gong)(gong)程(cheng)(cheng)场(chang)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)和(he)场(chang)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)周(zhou)围(wei)区域(yu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)活动(dong)环(huan)(huan)境评(ping)价(jia)、地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质(zhi)环(huan)(huan)境评(ping)价(jia)、断裂活动(dong)性(xing)(xing)鉴(jian)定(ding)、地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)危险(xian)性(xing)(xing)分(fen)析、设计地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)动(dong)参(can)数确定(ding)、地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)震(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)(zhen)地(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)(di)质(zhi)灾害(hai)评(ping)价(jia)等。

    三、管理(li)条例

    国(guo)务院(yuan)令第323号,2001年11月15日公布,自2002年1月1日起施行,对中华人民共和国防震减灾法中的上述规定进行了细化,对需要进行地震安全性评价的建设工程的范围进行了规定。该条例第十一条规定:

    下列建设工(gong)程必(bi)须进(jin)行地震安全性(xing)评价:

    (一)国家重大建设工(gong)程;

    (二)受地震破坏后可能引(yin)发(fa)水灾、火灾、爆炸、剧毒或者强(qiang)腐蚀性物(wu)质(zhi)大量泄漏或者其他(ta)严(yan)重次生(sheng)灾害(hai)的建设工程(cheng),包(bao)括水库(ku)大坝(ba)、堤防和贮油、贮气(qi)、贮存易燃易爆、剧毒或者强(qiang)腐蚀性物(wu)质(zhi)的设施以及其他(ta)可能发(fa)生(sheng)严(yan)重次生(sheng)灾害(hai)的建设工程(cheng);

    (三)受地震破坏后可能引发放射(she)性污染的核(he)(he)电站和核(he)(he)设(she)施建(jian)设(she)工程;

    (四(si))省、自治区、直辖市认为(wei)对本行政区域有重(zhong)大价值或者有重(zhong)大影响的其(qi)他建(jian)设工程。

    国家标准GB18306-2001《中国地震动参数区划图》第4.3条规定:

    (1)下列工(gong)程或地(di)区的(de)抗(kang)震(zhen)(zhen)设防要求(qiu)不应直(zhi)接采用本标准,需做专门(men)研究,即地(di)震(zhen)(zhen)安全性评价:

    a) 抗震(zhen)设防(fang)要(yao)求(qiu)高(gao)于本地震(zhen)动参数区划图抗震(zhen)设防(fang)要(yao)求(qiu)的(de)(de)重大工(gong)程、可能发(fa)生(sheng)严重次(ci)生(sheng)灾害的(de)(de)工(gong)程、核电站和其他(ta)有特(te)殊要(yao)求(qiu)的(de)(de)核设施建设工(gong)程;

    b)位于地震动参数区划图(tu)分界线附近的(de)新建(jian)(jian)、扩建(jian)(jian)、改建(jian)(jian)的(de)工(gong)程(cheng);

    c)某些地震研究程(cheng)度和资(zi)料(liao)详(xiang)细(xi)程(cheng)度较差的边远地区;

    d)位于复杂工(gong)程(cheng)地(di)质条件区域的大城市、大型(xing)厂(chang)矿企业(ye)、长距(ju)离生(sheng)命(ming)线工(gong)程(cheng)以(yi)及新建开发区等。

    以(yi)上各(ge)条款规定(ding)的(de)建(jian)(jian)设(she)(she)工(gong)程(cheng)、以(yi)及国家有关行业主管部(bu)门和各(ge)省级(ji)人民政(zheng)府(fu)规定(ding)的(de)应开展(zhan)工(gong)程(cheng)场(chang)(chang)(chang)地(di)地(di)震(zhen)(zhen)安全性(xing)(xing)评价(jia)的(de)各(ge)类建(jian)(jian)设(she)(she)工(gong)程(cheng),都应按本标准的(de)要(yao)求,认真开展(zhan)工(gong)程(cheng)场(chang)(chang)(chang)地(di)地(di)震(zhen)(zhen)安全性(xing)(xing)评价(jia)工(gong)作(zuo)。对(dui)规定(ding)以(yi)外的(de)因(yin)建(jian)(jian)设(she)(she)需要(yao)等原因(yin)要(yao)进行地(di)震(zhen)(zhen)安全性(xing)(xing)评价(jia)的(de)建(jian)(jian)设(she)(she)工(gong)程(cheng),其工(gong)程(cheng)场(chang)(chang)(chang)地(di)地(di)震(zhen)(zhen)安全性(xing)(xing)评价(jia)工(gong)作(zuo)也应符合本标准的(de)相关技术要(yao)求。

    四(si)、地震安全(quan)性评价分级

    地震安全性评价工作划分为以下四级:

    a) Ⅰ级工作包括地震(zhen)(zhen)危险性的概率分析和确(que)定性分析、能动断层鉴定、场地地震(zhen)(zhen)动参数确(que)定和地震(zhen)(zhen)地质灾害评价。适用于(yu)核电厂等重(zhong)大建设工程(cheng)项目中的主(zhu)要工程(cheng);

    b) Ⅱ级(ji)工作包括地震危险性概率分析(xi)、场地地震动参(can)数(shu)确定和地震地质灾(zai)害评价。适用于除Ⅰ级(ji)以外(wai)的重大建设工程项目中的主要工程;

    c) Ⅲ级(ji)工(gong)作包括地震危险性(xing)概率(lv)分(fen)析、区域性(xing)地震区划和地震小区划。适用于城镇(zhen)、大型厂矿(kuang)企业、经济建设开发区、重(zhong)要(yao)生命线工(gong)程等;

    d) Ⅳ级工(gong)作(zuo)包括地震危险性概率分析、地震动(dong)峰值加(jia)速(su)度复(fu)核(he)。

地震安全性评价.jpg

 


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